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Interim - Wetenschappelijk onderzoek

We maakten een selectie van de wetenschappelijke studies over aarden en gezondheid in toonaangevende medische tijdschriften en sommeerden de conclusies. Het onderzoek werd hoofdzakelijk in het engels gepubliceerd. We werken aan de vertalingen van de conclusies.
Je kunt de volledige studies downloaden onder ‘File’

Klik op de groene titels om de inhoud te openen of te sluiten.

Publication: Medical Thermography Case Studies. Clinical Earthing Application in 20 Case Studies
Researcher: William Amalu, DC, DABCT, FIACT
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Method: The case studies presented were performed out of an out-patient clinical treatment center in Redwood City, California. The subjects were randomly selected out of the treatment database as they presented for care. Each subject consented to inclusion in the study. Pain levels were assessed and followed using the standardized four point visual analogue pain scale. Thermal imaging of each subject was undertaken utilizing standardized pre-examination preparation protocols and strict image acquisition according to published guidelines. Some of the subjects were supplied with an earthing sleep system consisting of bedding containing conductive fibers, which was placed on top of the subject’s mattress and thereafter connected to the earth via a conductive ground cord and an earthed ground rod. Other subjects were given clinical earthing treatments, which entailed the use of conductive electrode adhesive patches that were attached to the skin at specific points and thereafter coupled to the earth via a conductive ground wire that was connected to an earthed ground rod. All of the subjects were followed over time and their results recorded and summarized. Use of high-resolution medical infrared imaging as an objective assessment of both inflammatory and neurophysiologic conditions demonstrated significant immediate changes in both acute and chronic inflammation related conditions. ETT is showing incredible promise as one of the most significant advances in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.
Note: Throughout this document, the term Electron Transfer Technology (ETT), is used as another term for “earthing” – coupling the human body with the earth.

Publication:Pilot Study on the Effect of Grounding on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
Published in: THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE, Volume 16, Number 3, 2010, pp. 265–273
Author(s): Dick Brown, Gaetan Chevalier, Michael Hill
Date: 2010
File: acm%2E2009%2E0399_pilot_study_on_the_effect_of_grounding.pdf

Conclusion: The purpose of the study was to determine whether certain markers could differentiate between GRD and UNG subjects who had experienced DOMS and grounding or sham-grounding. Forty-eight (48) markers were measured. In 30 of these markers, a consistent pattern emerged; over the 3-day testing period, one or the other group was always above or below the other group. Of 144 data points, 52 (36.1%) showed differences of 10% or greater and 30 (20.8%) showed differences of 20% or greater. White blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, bilirubin, creatine kinase, Pi=PCr ratios, GPC, PC and both a subjective and objective pain measurement had a strong, positive relationship with the grounded subjects. Grounding appears to be the first intervention with the potential to reduce the time of recovery and improve muscle function from DOMS. These findings suggest that grounding has enough of an effect on DOMS that a larger study is warranted.

Publication: Explore, the Journal of Science and healing, Vol. 15, Issue 3, p. 181-190
Authors: Géatan Chevalier, Deepak Chopra, Sheila Patel, Lizabeth Weiss,  Paul J. Mills
Date: May-june 2019
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Conclusion: Grounding helped therapists who were experiencing higher stress to cope with those stressful situations by providing them with extra energy. Grounding also helped those therapists who were experiencing higher levels of pain to become more relaxed, with less anxiety and depression and improved sleep. These findings, combined with the results of a prior study indicating improvements in inflammatory biomarkers, blood viscosity and heart rate variability (HRV), suggest that grounding is beneficial for massage therapists in multiple domains relevant to their occupation, improving overall health and quality of life.

Publication: Scientific Research, Health, Vol. 10, Issue 2
Authors: Géatan Chevalier, Sheila Patel, Deepak Chopra, Brook Henry, Chris Pruitt, Lizabeth Weiss,  Paul J. Mills
Date: February 2018
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Conclusion: This exploratory study showed that grounding massage therapists while they performed massages and at night reduces stress as indicated by various bio-markers (HR, RR, LF, HF and LF/HF). It also showed that the lowering effect of grounding on blood viscosity lasts for at least one week after ungrounding, with systolic blood viscosity becoming significantly lower at the end of the study as compared to the initial pre-intervention value. Inflammation markers (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and hsCRP) increased rapidly after ungrounding, within a week, suggesting the importance of grounding on a regular basis, preferably daily. Abnormally stressful situations lasting for long periods of time can partially decrease the benefits of grounding, but not eliminate them. This study’s findings suggest that grounding is beneficial for massage therapists in several domains relevant to health and wellbeing.

Published in: Journal of Inflammation Research
Author(s): Richard Brown, Gaétan Chevalier, Michael Hill
Date: 24-03-2015
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Conclusion: Accumulating experiences and research on earthing, or grounding, point to the emergence of a simple, natural, and accessible health strategy against chronic inflammation, war­ranting the serious attention of clinicians and researchers. The living matrix (or ground regulation or tissue tensegrity-matrix system), the very fabric of the body, appears to serve as one of our primary antioxidant defense systems. As this report explains, it is a system requiring occasional recharging by conductive contact with the earth’s surface – the “battery” for all planetary life – to be optimally effective.

Publication: Journal of Environmental and Public Health Volume 2012, Article ID 291541
Author(s):Gaetan Chevalier, Stephen T. Sinatra, James L. Oschman, Karol Sokal, Pawel Sokal
Date: 4-10-2011
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Conclusion: De Flora wrote the following: “Since the late 20th century, chronic degenerative diseases have overcome infectious disease as the major causes of death in the 21st century, so an increase in human longevity will depend on finding an intervention that inhibits the development of these diseases and slows their progress” [33].
Could such an intervention be located right beneath our feet? Earthing research, observations, and related theories raise an intriguing possibility about the Earth’s surface electrons as an untapped health resource—the Earth as a “global treatment table.” Emerging evidence shows that contact with the Earth—whether being outside barefoot or indoors connected to grounded conductive systems—may be a simple, natural, and yet profoundly effective environmental strategy against chronic stress, ANS dysfunction, inflammation, pain, poor sleep, disturbed HRV, hypercoagulable blood, and many common health disorders, including cardiovascular disease. The research done to date supports the concept that grounding or earthing the human body may be an essential element in the health equation along with sunshine, clean air and water, nutritious food, and physical activity.

Publication: Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes
Published in: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medecine, Volume 17, Number 4, 2011, pp. 301–308
Author(s): Karol Sokal, Pawel Sokal
Date: 2011
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Conclusion: Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes through the aqueous environment of the Earth and the aqueous environment of the human organism via a copper conductor in a building with reinforced concrete construction. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. The effect of earthing the human body on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating the endocrine and nervous systems.

Published in: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medecine, Volume 17, Number 4, 2011, pp. 283–285

Author: James L. Oschman, PhD
Date: 2011
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Conclusion: Many chronic diseases are lifelong conditions, and impact the quality of life not only of those suffering from the diseases, but also of their family members, caregivers, and others. Stemming the growth in the enormous costs related to chronic disease has become a major policy priority, as the government, employers, and consumers increasingly struggle to keep up. ... Discovery of the underlying causes of the chronic diseases would be another milestone, and may now be within reach... With respect to chronic diseases, a plausible, testable, and refutable hypothesis is that all chronic diseases have a single underlying cause: the stresses that produce and maintain chronic inflammation. Such stresses include environmental factors of various kinds including those that disturb physiology and those whose absence is disruptive. In this editorial, both sunlight and contact with the earth have been mentioned as essential environmental requirements for health. A corollary to the hypothesis is that the thousands of so-called diseases that have been named may actually be an elaborate classification system of the various symptoms that can arise from a single underlying condition: inflammation.

Published in: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 19, Nr 2, 2013, pp. 102–110
Author(s): Gaetan Chevalier, Stephen T. Sinatra, James L. Oschman, Richard M. Delany
Date: 2013
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Conclusion:  Increased blood viscosity in the general population may be a predictor of cardiovascular events because of its influences on hypertension, thrombogenesis, ischemia, and arthrogenesis. Unfortunately, blood viscosity has become a forgotten risk factor and is rarely measured in clinical practice. Interventions that reduce blood viscosity and RBC aggregation are important. Statins appear to be effective for modulating blood viscosity, but can have serious side-effects including death. Moreover, some patients have statin intolerance. The use of a safe effective anti-inflammatory strategy that is not dependent on isoprenoid inhibition is therefore desirable. Grounding or earthing the body is virtually harmless. To date, there has been no systematic study of the effects of grounding on BP. However, there are anecdotal reports that patients using blood-thinning drugs, such as warfarin (Coumadin), need to have their clotting time monitored when they begin to make more frequent conductive contact with the earth. When physicians recommend evidence based, harmless, and simple natural interventions, alleviation of human suffering and improved quality of life can be realized. The findings in this pilot study indicate that grounding has a safe and significant effect on zeta potential and that further study is warranted.

Published in: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 2013, Art. ID 382643
Author(s): Pawel Sokal,Zbigniew Jastrzwbski, Ewelina Jaskulska, Karol Sokal, Maria Jastrzwbska,
Aukasz Radziminski, Robert Dargiewicz, Piotr Zielinski
Date: 2013
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Conclusion:  Our study shows that blood urea concentrations are lower in subjects who are earthed (connected to the earth potential with the use of copper wire) during physical exercise and recovery compared with the same subjects who are not earthed during the same period of exercise and recovery. These results suggest that earthing during exercise inhibits hepatic protein catabolism or increases renal urea excretion. Earthing during exercise affects protein metabolism, resulting in a positive nitrogen balance. This phenomenon has fundamental importance in understanding humanmetabolic processes and may have implications in training programs for athletes.

Published in: ESD Journal
Author: A. Clint Ober
Date: 14-7-2003
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Conclusion:  The evidence presented in this paper demonstrates that grounding the human body to earth reduces chronic inflammation and related chronic pain.
Due to the modern day loss of natural grounding (wearing synthetic soled shoes and living in environments that insulate the body from the earth), exposure to 50-60 Hz electric fields creates measurable induced voltage in the body. This unnatural voltage consists of electrons of the body that are "held hostage" during exposure and held away from their normal functions. In effect, this creates a shortage of electrons in the body in terms of normal functioning. This results in increased free radical levels that promote chronic inflammation (oxidative stress) and related chronic pain. Grounding the human body to earth shields it from environmental electric fields and restores the body's natural bioelectrical homeostasis.
Research findings support this conclusion, as follows: when the human body is grounded (1) induced body voltage is significantly reduced; (2) cortisol, a well-known biomarker for stress and inflammation, normalizes; (3) test subjects experience a significant reduction in chronic inflammation and related chronic pain; and, (4) current research (see reference list below) confirms that exposure to environmental 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields increases free radicals and lengthens their life span in the body.

Published in: (1) European Biology and Bioelectromagnetics 2006, 600–621
Published in: (2) Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine, Vol. 18, Nr. 3, Page 11
Author(s): Gaétan Chevalier, Kazuhito Mori, James L. Oschman
Date: 31-01-2006 / 2007
File (1): Download Full PDF
File (2): Download Full PDF

Conclusion (1):  Highly significant EEG, EMG and BVP results demonstrate that restoring the natural electrical potential of the earth to the human body (earthing) rapidly affects human electrophysiological and physiological parameters. The extreme rapidity of these changes indicates a physical/bioelectrical mechanism rather than a biochemical change. While more research is needed, it appears that the changes are in the direction of normalization or balancing of the electrical parameters affecting physiological systems. Taken together, the changes in EEG, EMG, and BVP reported here suggest reductions in overall stress levels, tensions and autonomic balance in the organism upon earthing. The results therefore correlate with the effects reported in the previous study (Ghaly, & Teplitz 2004), which showed changes in cortisol profiles associated with decreases in subjectively reported symptoms, including sleep dysfunction, pain and stress. Earthing appears to reduce the noise coupled into the body from various sources. Hence the degree of earthing may have been a “hidden variable” in many electrophysiological studies.

Conclusion (2):  The results support a decrease in inflammation after earthing and an increase in parasympathetic activity in their internal organs. The results confirm our previous study which concluded that earthing reduces stress and normalizes the functioning of the autonomic nervous system.

Published in: ESD Journal

Author: A. Clint Ober
Date: Jan. 2000
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Conclusion:  The important finding of this study is that the human body when grounded is naturally protected from static electricity and the weak electric currents created in the body by radiated electric fields. The benefits of grounding the body are; sleep significantly improves, muscles relax, chronic back and joint pain subsides and general health improves.

Comments from Russell Whitten, D.C. Ojai, CA 8/25/00
Prompted by the results of a patient, who participated in Mr. Ober's study, I grounded the beds of 35 additional patients over a two-month period. The bed e-field measurements in this group ranged from .3 to 47 volts before grounding. A variety of health benefits occurred in this time. Many of the improvements, such as increased energy and athletic performance, can be attributed to the improved sleep that almost everyone reported. However, in many cases metabolic and hormonal conditions responded as well. Chronic back pain went away in several cases, stiff arthritic joints became more flexible, asthma attacks subsided and PMS symptoms lessened greatly. These indications confirm that e -fields do affect the body.

Comments from Roger Coghill 5/12/99
Yes, I would be prepared to believe that grounding the body will help dispel any extraneous electric fields which could otherwise interfere with the body’s own endogenous fields. We have found that these latter are vital for wellbeing, with adverse effects if disturbed. It could also be a way forward for protection against high frequency radiation.

Published in: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Volume 10, Number 5, 2004, pp. 767–776
Author(s): Maurice Ghaly and Dale Teplitz
Date: 21-09-2015
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Effects of grounding: Electrically grounding the human body refers to maintaining the body at the natural electrical potential (voltage) of the earth. The voltage of the earth is a measure of the free electrons that reside on the earth’s surface (Gish, 1936). Grounding the human body by close coupling it with a ground plane in the form of a conductive mattress pad, placed under a bed sheet and connected directly to the earth, significantly reduces the 60 Hz electric field–induced body voltage by offsetting the attraction of a 60 Hz electric field from the body (which is small) to the earth (which is large). This creates a stabilizing effect on the electrons of the body that were previously disturbed by the attraction of the 60 Hz electric field to the body.

Conclusion: Results indicate that grounding the human body to earth during sleep reduces night-time levels of cortisol and resynchronizes hormone cortisol secretion more in alignment with the natural 24-hour circadian rhythm profile. Changes were most apparent in females. Furthermore, subjective reporting indicates that grounding the human body to earth during sleep improves sleep and reduces pain and stress.

Published in: THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE, Volume 16, Number 3, 2010, pp. 265–273
Author(s): Dick Brown, Gaetan Chevalier, Michael Hill
Date: 2010
File: Download full PDF
Conclusion: The purpose of the study was to determine whether certain markers could differentiate between GRD and UNG subjects who had experienced DOMS and grounding or sham-grounding. Forty-eight (48) markers were measured. In 30 of these markers, a consistent pattern emerged; over the 3-day testing period, one or the other group was always above or below the other group. Of 144 data points, 52 (36.1%) showed differences of 10% or greater and 30 (20.8%) showed differences of 20% or greater. White blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, bilirubin, creatine kinase, Pi=PCr ratios, GPC, PC and both a subjective and objective pain measurement had a strong, positive relationship with the grounded subjects. Grounding appears to be the first intervention with the potential to reduce the time of recovery and improve muscle function from DOMS. These findings suggest that grounding has enough of an effect on DOMS that a larger study is warranted.

Published in: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
By: Richard Brown, Gaétan Chevalier, Michael Hill
Date: 21-09-2015
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Conclusion: The study demon­strated that grounding after moderate eccentric contractions resulted in differences in certain markers between and/or within groups. The grounded group, on various days, had significantly higher neutrophils and platelets. Practical sig­nificance with respect to neutrophils and grounding should be further investigated because of 1) the important role of neutrophils in both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses, and 2) the tendency of neutrophils in three pre­vious studies to approach statistical significance. Platelet increase may be important due to their recently discovered participation in the immune inflammatory responses. The sham-grounded group had significantly higher CK on day 2 while the grounded subjects did not experience an increase in CK. This is an important result because CK due to eccentric contractions usually increases significantly in both groups. Grounding reduced the loss of CK from the injured muscle cells, indicating a healing effect.

Published in: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Volume 18, Number 3, 2012, pp. 229–234
Author(s): Karol Sokal, Pawel Sokal
Date: 2012
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Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that up-and-down movement and the elimination of potentials in the electrical environment of the human organism by the Earth’s mass may play a fundamental role in regulation of bioelectrical and bioenergetical processes. The Earth’s electromagnetohydrodynamic potential may be responsible for this phenomenon.

Published in: European Biology and Bioelectromagnetics 2005, 1: 23–40
Author(s): Roger Applewhite
Date: 29-04-2004
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Conclusion:  The testing performed confirms that the Conductive Patch and the Conductive Bed Pad are both effective in reducing the mains induced body voltage by a considerable amount. The test also provided evidence that the electric network model of the body used in this study generally explains the phenomenon demonstrated in the test.

Published in: Integrative Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 3
Author(s): Gaétan Chevalier, Stephen T. Sinatra
Date: 6-7/2011
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Conclusion:   When one grounds to the electron-enriched earth, an improved balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system occurs. Previous investigations reported a marked change in biological parameters after about 20 to 30 minutes, others in several days, and a few others show a drastic change immediately at grounding (<2 sec). Skin conductance and electroencephalographic and electromyographic recordings showed the most immediate and profound changes.6,8  This study showed a positive trend in HRV that kept improving all the way to the end of the 40-minute period of grounding, suggesting a greater benefit with time.
In patients who experience anxiety, emotional stress, panic, fear, and/or symptoms of autonomic dystonia, including headaches, cardiac palpitations, and dizziness, grounding could be a very realistic therapy. These patients may see positive effects most likely within 20 to 30 minutes and in almost all cases in 40 minutes.
Negative emotions such as panic, depression, anxiety, and hostility have all demonstrated reduced HRV. Grounding has the potential to help support HRV, reduce excessive sympathetic overdrive, balance the ANS, and, thus, attenuate the stress response. This has important prognostic considerations especially because an association between depression and increased risk of cardiovascular events has been repeatedly observed in both the healthy population and patients with established cardiovascular disease. Future studies are warranted in utilizing grounding to help assuage the chronically over-stimulated sympathetic nervous system in patients with cardiovascular disorders. Such prospective studies should also include subjective measurements of perception of anxiety, depression, obsessive ruminations related to distressors, and perceived levels of stress. In the setting of acute or chronic sympathetic overdrive, grounding the body to nature, as well as employing conventional medical care when appropriate, is a logical and ethical integrative intervention that will help to support positive clinical response and possibly outcome as well.

Published in: Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 2014, 4, 293-308
Author(s): Gaétan Chevalier
Date: 12-2014
File: Download full PDF 

Conclusion:   The very Earth we live on possesses a form of easily accessible and beneficial natural electric energy that has been found to positively influence human physiology in various ways. Previous studies have indicated improved cardiovascular and rheological (blood viscosity) dynamics, including autonomic nervous system regulation.
In this study, the Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging camera further supports those findings by documenting a clear improvement in autonomic nervous system regulation of facial blood flow in grounded subjects but not in sham-grounded subjects. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that even one-hour contact with the Earth restores blood flow regulation to the face that may enhance skin tissue repair, health and vitality, and optimize facial appearance, which may also have broad implications for overall cardiovascular function and health. Further studies, using larger comparison groups, longer monitoring times and more measuring methods, are warranted in order to confirm the novel influence of the Earth as a protector of skin health and appearance.

Published in: Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2015, 5, 159-168
Author(s): Richard Brown, Gaétan Chevalier
Date: 04-2015
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Conclusion:   Blood viscosity may be an early predictor of chronic disease. Since equipment is now available to reliably measure this parameter, more investigations should be undertaken. Habits, as well as certain medications, can lower blood viscosity. But medications are often expensive and present unwanted side effects. A potential treatment that presents no downside is grounding the body to the earth. In this study it was shown that, despite mild exercise that can raise blood viscosity temporarily, blood viscosity was lowered at both the systolic and diastolic ends of the cardiac cycle in subjects using grounded yoga mats. Earthing has the ability to affect exercise-induced inflammation by reducing blood viscosity.

Published in: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medecine, Volume 16, Number 1, 2010, pp. 1–7
Author(s): Gaetan Chevalier
Date: 2010
File: Download full PDF
Conclusion:  The findings presented in this article support previous findings regarding stress reduction and improved sleep. This warrants more research to understand first the physiologic and electrophysiologic changes happening during grounding and, on a longer term, the implications and ramifications of grounding for health maintenance and=or disease prevention. This could be an important result that can lead to methods for improving people’s health naturally and to cut health care costs by preventing a host of problems and diseases related to stress.
Publication: Frontiers in Physiology, 2019
Author(s): Erich Müller, Patrick Pröller, Fatima Ferreira-Briza, Lorenz Aglas and Thomas Stöggl
Date: 28 january 2019
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Taken together, grounded sleeping was shown to result in faster recovery and/or less pronounced markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Our preliminary results with respect to the detailed blood analysis strongly support the view that grounded sleeping modulates key events in the early stages of muscle regeneration at both cellular and molecular levels. Based on the investigated immunological parameters, the modulatory effects of grounded sleeping seem to dampen inflammatory responses triggered by EIMD. GRD might be seen as a simple methodology to enhance acute and long-term recovery after intensive exercises within the training process or following intensive competitions.

Based on the results of the pilot study, more research is necessary to clearly point out the mechanisms behind possible effects of grounded sleeping on the cellular and molecular levels.

Additionally, the magnitude of being grounded, that is how many “mobile” electrons migrate into the body while GRD vs. UGD sleeping, needs to be investigated further. Finally, whether or not grounded sleeping affects sleep patterns (e.g., sleep quality) also needs to be addressed in future studies. An improvement in the sleeping quality by grounded sleeping might result in alterations in performance and changes in stress markers in athletes.

Publication: Neonatology, 2017
Author(s):Rohit Passi, Kim K. Doheny, Yuri Gordin, Hans Hinssen, Charles Palmer
Date: 27 february 2017
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Low vagal tone (VT) is a marker of vulnerability to stress and the risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Electric fields produced by equipment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) induce an electric potential measurable on the skin in reference to ground. An electrical connection to ground reduces the skin potential and improves VT in adults.
With EG, the skin voltage dropped by about 95%. Pre-grounding VT was inversely correlated with the skin potential. VT increased by 67% with EG. After grounding, the VT fell to the pre-grounding level.
Conclusion: The electrical environment affects autonomic balance. EG improves VT and may improve resilience to stress and lower the risk of neonatal morbidity in preterm infants.